What does it take to be able to hold the most notorious criminals in the world? Special arrangements must be undertaken to make sure that the absolute worst of the worst will stay behind bars and that they will not be able to escape to rejoin society.
This is where supermax high-security prisons become relevant. This kind of prison guarantee that the most dangerous criminals are being strictly segregated on a long-term basis. Authorities ensure that they do not pose a threat to security and the peace and order situation any more by keeping them inside.
Here are 5 of what are considered to be the prisons which are the most difficult to break out of globally. Conditions may be potentially unlivable, which is probably appropriate given the kind of people who live in them.
ADX Florence, USA
ASX Florence, which is in Colorado, is perhaps the most secure prison on the planet. This Prison is a maximum lock-down jail where it is said that prisoners are lucky if they ever get to see the sun at all. This involves a cell that has no direct access. Furthermore, its dwellers are locked up the whole day, denied any measure that could possibly help them get out, let alone, escape.
When the law requires that you need to be put in detention, law enforcement agencies can do so by issuing arrest warrants. Only with an arrest warrant is the arrest of an individual legitimate. However, when found in the act of crime, the police might arrest the offender without the warrant. The police are given the warrant by a judge in a court of law on behalf of the state.
Warrant contains the name of the person to be detained, the crime of which this particular individual has been charged and the name of the court of law that has issued the arrest order.
The Freedom of Information Act is a law that allows you to access documents and information from the federal government, especially if you want to check whether a person has a criminal history in the United States. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the law on July 4, 1966.
What is the FOIA?
The FOIA law is often described as the law that allows U.S citizens to keep up with what their government is doing. Any federal agency must disclose any information requested unless it falls under certain exemptions. According to FOIA.gov, there are nine exemptions, and they include:
Exemption 1: Information that is classified to protect national security. Exemption 2: Information related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency. Exemption 3: Information that is prohibited from disclosure by another federal law. Exemption 4: Trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is confidential or privileged. Exemption 5: Privileged communications within or between agencies, including:
Deliberative Process Privilege
Attorney-Work Product Privilege
Attorney-Client Privilege Exemption 6: Information that, if disclosed, would invade another individual’s personal privacy. Exemption 7: Information compiled for law enforcement purposes that:
7(A). Could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings
7(B). Would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication
7(C). Could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy
7(D). Could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of a confidential source
7(E). Would disclose techniques and procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions
7(F). Could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of any individual Exemption 8: Information that concerns the supervision of financial institutions. Exemption 9: Geological information on wells.
How FOIA helps the public
The FOIA makes it easier for the public to access records about their government. A lot of information is already publicly available on different agencies on their websites or the FOIA website, but if the information you want isn’t available, you can submit an FOIA request.
Most federal agencies accept requests electronically, but you can also submit a written request and submit it to the agency’s FOIA Office. A request can be made for any agency and you can choose the format that the report is delivered. With this resource, anyone can investigate the government.
In addition, thanks to FOIA, there are numerous private websites – such as this one– that provide efficient and reliable background check tools. These tools allow anyone to check quite easily whether a person has a criminal history.
What are the Root Causes of Crime – the Biological Theory of Cesare Lombroso
In the beginning of the 19th century a whole body of theories regarding the root causes of crime emerged. These theories were based upon a belief that crime originated in defected biology.
One of the Italian leading criminologist who was at the front of this new thinking was Cesare Lombroso. Being a physician, Lombroso tried to look for bodily factors that stood behind unlawful conduct. He rejected the meta-physical axiom according to which the tendency to commit a crime was a part of human nature.
Instead, he resorted to physiognomic, eugenic, psychiatric and Darwinist explanations to crime. Basically, what he claim was that the tendency to criminal behavior is hereditary and criminals can be identified based on external characteristics.
This positivist approach was an attempt to find conceivable reasons for a social phenomenon and nothing can provide better positivist explanations than biology. Cesare Lombroso served as a military doctor in prison, and he exploited his position to conduct tests and experiments on deceased inmates.
In one of his most noticeable cases, he discovered abnormalities in the skull structure of one of his “patients” he was posthumously examining. An area in the brain, which is usually developed among mammals, was under-developed in that man. He concluded that the tendency to criminal behavior is atavistic.
Lombroso published his findings in a book calledL’uomo delinquent in 1876. This book created much sensation but Lombroso’s doctrine never really took roots for three main reasons:
His research was not broad enough. There was a need for much more studying and experimenting to establish the tip of an iceberg of what could be an established theory.
His methodology was flawed as it did not follow strict scientific standards.
His doctrine ignored social and environmental aspects which undoubtedly play a major role in criminal behavior. Biology can never be the sole cause of a social phenomenon.
North Carolina is considered a record state. What does it mean? The answer is that everyone without too much difficulty can track a person’s criminal history while enjoying full and almost unlimited access governmental databases on the Internet and outside the Internet. So how can you do a Background Check in North Carolina?
Using your County’s resources
When checking a person’s criminal history, the best you can do is adopting a ‘bottom-up’ approach; that is, starting with what the county has to offer before resorting to data banks managed by the state.
Sheriffs usually store data on all arrests made under their jurisdiction (In most cases, the sheriff is also the one who runs the local detention facility) in addition to warrants issued by the court. Hence, we suggest utilizing their resources.
Let’s take the largest county in North Carolina as an example. You will be surprised to learn how many resources for tracking a person’s criminal record in Mecklenburg County the local sheriff offers users.
After a person is arrested for DUI, he is brought in front of a District Court commissioner for a preliminary inquiry. Afterwards he goes on trial. The defendant has two options. He can plead guilty and then sentenced according to the severity of the charge filed against him.
Alternatively, the accused may decide to go on trial. In that case, his attorney will try to do all that he can to undermine the validity of the prosecutor’s arguments or question the legality of the arrest. For example, the lawyer may claim the arresting officer had no legal right to stop the driver and ask him to perform a field sobriety test. If he succeeds, in most cases the defendant will be acquitted.
In March, 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested by the police for a bank robbery in Phoenix, Arizona. After 2 hours of harsh interrogation in which he was not offered the services of a lawyer, police were able to extract a confession not only of robbery but of rape as well committed by Miranda 11 days earlier.
Miranda was trialed and sentenced to 20 years in prison. His lawyer appealed to the US Supreme Court, which on June 13, 1966 annulled the sentence of the Arizona court and ordered a new trial in which Miranda’s confession would not be accounted as evidence.
This case established what is known today as Miranda Rights according to which a suspects enjoy the basic right not to incriminate themselves based on the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution.
Are you interested in checking whether a person is wanted by the police? Your best alternative for a warrant search is the county sheriff. Some sheriffs have an electronic search tool on their official website. For instance, if you want to inquire about warrants issued in Will County, Illinois, all you need to do is navigate to the sheriff’s online database (which you can find here) and initiate an inquiry based on a name or city.
If there is no such online search option, go to the sheriff office in person and ask them to go over their archives. It’s less convenient and it will take more time, but it will be worthwhile if you get the information that you seek.
In addition, some states operate public databases that present fugitive people and the warrants issued against them. A good example for such a database is the Public Access System of the Florida Department of Law Enforcement.
If you are being charged with a crime, the offense types fall into three different levels: infractions, misdemeanors, and felonies. It is imperative that you understand the differences between them, especially misdemeanors vs. felonies.
Infractions, also known as violations
Infractions are sometimes called violations. They are smaller offenses that are usually punished by fines instead of jail time. Infractions cannot result in jail time or probation. If you are charged with an infraction, you do not have the right to a jury trial or a court-appointed attorney if you can’t afford your own representation. Traffic violations are the most common infractions.
The type of facility a convicted criminal will serve their time depends on the level and severity of the crime, the class of the crime, and the type of crime committed. In the following article, I will explain the difference between jail and prison while also mentioning federal prison. Focus will be given to the offense committed by the inmate.
County jails are funded and run by the county or city government.
People who are sent to County Jails fit one of three criteria:
The person was just arrested and is being for a plea bargain, trial, or sentencing.
County Jails also act as holding cells for those who were transferred and are awaiting transportation to State or Federal Prison.
People who have only been convicted of misdemeanors and are serving shorter sentences; usually only a year or less.
State prisons are funded and run by the state or federal government, and are often referred to as penitentiaries.
People are sent to State Prison if they fit these criteria:
The person has been convicted of a felony criminal offense and is serving a sentence longer than a year.
Those who are released from prison are usually released under the supervision of parole officers, halfway houses, or other type of community program.
Federal Prisons are funded and run by the federal government. The requirements of being sentenced to federal prison are much stricter than any other correctional facility.
People are sent to Federal Prison if they commit the following types of crimes:
If the person committed a crime on federal property, like a national park or military base.
If the person committed a crime against a federal officer, like a DEA or FBI agent.
If the person commits a crime across state lines; like kidnapping or murdering a victim and driving them through several states.
If the person commits a crime that involves immigration or customs violations; such as human trafficking.